Trauma Monthly

Published by: Kowsar

Mental Trauma Experienced by Caregivers of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Syed Tajuddin Syed Hassan 1 , * , Husna Jamaludin 2 , Rosna Abd Raman 1 , Haliza Mohd Riji 3 and Khaw Wan Fei 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Medicine, University of Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Department of Computing Sciences, University of Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Department of Community Health, University of Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Article information
  • Trauma Monthly: September 20, 2013, 18 (2); 56-61
  • Published Online: August 11, 2013
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: April 11, 2013
  • Revised: May 30, 2013
  • Accepted: June 3, 2013
  • DOI: 10.5812/traumamon.11522

To Cite: Syed Hassan S T, Jamaludin H, Abd Raman R, Mohd Riji H, Wan Fei K. Mental Trauma Experienced by Caregivers of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Trauma Mon. 2013 ; 18(2):56-61. doi: 10.5812/traumamon.11522.

Copyright © 2013, Trauma Monthly. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
  • 1. Bener A, Omar AO, Ahmad AE, Al-Mulla FH, Abdul Rahman YS. The pattern of traumatic brain injuries: a country undergoing rapid development. Brain Inj. 2010; 24(2): 74-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Summers CR, Ivins B, Schwab KA. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: an epidemiologic overview. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009; 76(2): 105-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Naci H, Chisholm D, Baker TD. Distribution of road traffic deaths by road user group: a global comparison. Inj Prev. 2009; 15(1): 55-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. SyedTajuddin SH, Raman RA, Riji HM. Transforming information into knowledge: Quick diagnosis and prognosis. Health Scope. 2012; 1(2): 89-90
  • 5. Tyrer S, Lievesley A. Pain following traumatic brain injury: Assessment and management. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2003; 13(1-2): 189-210[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Zoellner T, Rabe S, Karl A, Maercker A. Posttraumatic growth in accident survivors: openness and optimism as predictors of its constructive or illusory sides. J Clin Psychol. 2008; 64(3): 245-63[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Ennis N, Rosenbloom BN, Canzian S, Topolovec-Vranic J. Depression and anxiety in parent versus spouse caregivers of adult patients with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2013; 23(1): 1-18[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Hassan SST, Khaw WF, Rosna AR, Husna J. Traumatic brain injury: caregivers' problems and needs. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2011; 51(181): 53-5[PubMed]
  • 9. Syed Hassan ST, Jamaludin H, Abdul Raman R, Latiff LA, Mohd Riji H. Knowledge, prevention strategies, and intervention tactics: traumas and motor vehicle accidents. Bull Emerg Trauma. 2013; 1(1 Jan): 3-4
  • 10. Syed Hassan ST, Wan-Fei K, Rosna A, Jamaludin H, Haliza MR. Review on Family Caregiving and Rehabilitation of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Health Med. 2012; 6(7): 2423-34
  • 11. Feser E. Philosophy of Mind: A Beginner's Guide. 2007;
  • 12. Harvey MR. An ecological view of psychological trauma and trauma recovery. J Trauma Stress. 1996; 9(1): 3-23[PubMed]
  • 13. Ishikawa F, Suzuki S, Okumiya A, Shimizu Y. Writers' award winner experiences of family members acting as primary caregivers for patients with traumatic brain injury. Rehabil Nurs. 2011; 36(2): 73-82[PubMed]
  • 14. Chopin SM. The Role of Positive Emotions in Health-Related Outcomes for Caregivers of Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury. 2012;
  • 15. Simpson G, Jones K. How important is resilience among family members supporting relatives with traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury? Clin Rehabil. 2013; 27(4): 367-77[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Syed Hassan ST, Jamaludin H. Mapping Cognitive Rehabilitation in Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI): A Case Study. J Nurs Allied Health Health Edu. 2008; 2(1): 1-13
  • 17. Kalantar Motamedi MH. Thinking outside of the box. Trauma Mon. 2012; 17(1): 217-218[DOI]
  • 18. Kreber LA. Functional Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Design. 2005;
  • 19. Jumisko E, Lexell J, Söderberg S. Living With Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury The Meaning of Family Members' Experiences. J Fam Nurs. 2007; 13(3): 353-69
  • 20. Bach LJ, David AS. Self-awareness after acquired and traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2006; 16(4): 397-414[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Williams C, Wood RL. Alexithymia and emotional empathy following traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010; 32(3): 259-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Murray J, Ehlers A, Mayou RA. Dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder: two prospective studies of road traffic accident survivors. Br J Psychiatry. 2002; 180: 363-8[PubMed]
  • 23. Arango-Lasprilla JC, Nicholls E, Villasenor Cabrera T, Drew A, Jimenez-Maldonado M, Martinez-Cortes ML. Health-related quality of life in caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury from Guadalajara, Mexico. J Rehabil Med. 2011; 43(11): 983-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Ghannaee Arani M, Fakharian E, Ardjmand A, Mohammadian H, Mohammadzadeh M, Sarbandi F. Ibn Sina’s (Avicenna) Contributions in the Treatment of Traumatic Injuries. Trauma Mon. 2012; 17(2): 301-4[DOI]
  • 25. Ebrahimi A. Treatment of Trauma Victims: Consideration of the Whole Perspective. Trauma Mon. 2012; 17(2): 265[DOI]
  • 26. Marsh NV, Kersel DA, Havill JH, Sleigh JW. Caregiver burden at 6 months following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 1998; 12(3): 225-38[PubMed]
  • 27. Katz S, Kravetz S, Grynbaum F. Wives' coping flexibility, time since husbands' injury and the perceived burden of wives of men with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2005; 19(1): 59-66[PubMed]
  • 28. Friedemann-Sanchez G, Griffin JM, Rettmann NA, Rittman M, Partin MR. Communicating information to families of polytrauma patients: a narrative literature review. Rehabil Nurs. 2008; 33(5): 206-13[PubMed]
  • 29. Persel CS, Persel CH, Ashley MJ, Krych DK. The use of noncontingent reinforcement and contingent restraint to reduce physical aggression and self-injurious behaviour in a traumatically brain injured adult. Brain Inj. 1997; 11(10): 751-60[PubMed]
  • 30. Umphred DA, Jewell MJ. Neurological rehabilitation. 2001;
  • 31. Rohling ML, Faust ME, Beverly B, Demakis G. Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: a meta-analytic re-examination of Cicerone et al.'s (2000, 2005) systematic reviews. Neuropsychology. 2009; 23(1): 20-39[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. McMillan TM. Neuropsychological assessment after extremely severe head injury in a case of life or death. Brain Injury. 1997; 11(7): 483-90
  • 33. Carroll E, Coetzer R. Identity, grief and self-awareness after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2011; 21(3): 289-305[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Man DW. Family caregivers' reactions and coping for persons with brain injury. Brain Inj. 2002; 16(12): 1025-37[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Schalock RL. Traumatic brain injury: Implications for practice. Appl Prev Psychol. 1999; 7(4): 247-53
  • 36. Ashley MJ, Persel CS, Clark MC, Krych DK. Long-term follow-up of post-acute traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: a statistical analysis to test for stability and predictability of outcome. Brain Inj. 1997; 11(9): 677-90[PubMed]
  • 37. Eames P, Wood R. Rehabilitation after severe brain injury: a follow-up study of a behaviour modification approach. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1985; 48(7): 613-9[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments